Monkeypox (hMPXV) Information & Guidance

Last Updated 08/10/2022 | Información in Español


hMPXV FAQ

What is monkeypox? 

Monkeypox is a rare disease caused by infection with hMPXV (the human version of the monkeypox virus). hMPXV is part of the same family of viruses as variola virus, the virus that causes smallpox. Monkeypox symptoms are similar to smallpox symptoms, but milder, and monkeypox is rarely fatal. Monkeypox is not related to chickenpox.

Monkeypox was discovered in 1958 when two outbreaks of a pox-like disease occurred in colonies of monkeys kept for research. Despite being named “monkeypox,” the source of the disease remains unknown. The first human case of monkeypox was recorded in 1970. Prior to the 2022 outbreak, monkeypox had been reported in people in several central and western African countries. Previously, almost all monkeypox cases in people outside of Africa were linked to international travel to countries where the disease commonly occurs or through imported animals. These cases occurred on multiple continents.

Who is at risk for hMPXV?  

hMPXV can affect anyone. When this most recent outbreak was first identified in Europe, it was linked to men who have sex with men who were at Queer events in Spain and Belgium.  There is no specific biological reason for men who have sex with men to be at any higher risk (Fenway Health, 2022).  

How many cases are there in Oregon?

For up-to-date case counts, please visit the Oregon Health Authority’s hMPXV page here.

How does hMPXV spread? 

hMPXV is spread primarily during direct, close, personal skin-to-skin contact with a person with symptoms, including through sex, kissing, cuddling and massage. In addition, contact with towels, clothing, bedding or other objects used by a person with the virus can also transmit the virus. Additionally, hMPXV can be transmitted through large respiratory droplets or oral fluids via prolonged face-to-face contact. These types of contact may occur during activities such as sex, cuddling, massage, kissing, talking closely or caring for someone with the virus. hMPXV can spread from the time symptoms start until the rash has fully healed and a fresh layer of skin has formed. The illness typically lasts 2-4 weeks. At this time, it is not known if hMPXV can spread through semen or vaginal fluids. 

What are the symptoms? 

Symptoms of hMPXV can include fever, headache, muscle aches, swollen lymph nodes, chills, exhaustion, and/or a rash that looks like pimples or blisters that appear on the face, inside the mouth, and on other parts of the body like hands feet, chest, genitals, or anus. Health officials say that in this outbreak many people are experiencing more mild flu-like symptoms, no fever and the rash is more frequently showing up on the genitals and anus in a more mild form. The rash usually appears within 1-3 days of feeling sick and goes through different stages before healing completely. The illness typically lasts 2-4 weeks. Sometimes people get a rash first, followed by other symptoms. Others only experience a rash.  

Here’s a Buzzfeed article about one person’s experience with hMPXV: https://www.buzzfeed.com/mattford/i-have-monkeypox-my-symptoms-so-far 

https://www.futuro360.com/ciencia-en-ti/viruela-mono-hombre-redes-sociales-video_20220705/

How long are people infectious? 

People are infectious when symptoms begin until lesions have healed (scabs have fallen off). This may take 2-4 weeks. 

What is the best way to prevent hMPXV?  

  • Avoid sex or intimate contact if you or your partner have new skin lesions, fever, swollen lymph nodes or suspect one of you has been exposed to hMPXV. Condoms do not prevent the spread of hMPXV. 
  • Avoid bedding or clothing that has been used by someone with the hMPXV infection 
  • Wash hands thoroughly if you have contact with someone with the virus. 

What should you do if you think you have hMPXV? 

If you develop symptoms of hMPXV, isolate yourself away from other people until you can be evaluated by a healthcare provider. Keep your rash covered and wear a mask around others. You’ll need to come into a clinic for an exam and possibly a swab of your rash to test for the virus. If you have symptoms or think you may have been exposed, you should seek care.

How does testing work? 

Monkeypox (hMPXV) is diagnosed by swabbing one of the pox or sores and sending it out for testing. It typically takes a few days to get results back at a minimum. If you believe you may have symptoms of hMPXV, please contact your primary care provider to inquire about testing. If you do not have a primary care provider contact your local health department to find a testing location.

What should I do if I test positive? 

Your healthcare team will contact you to talk about next steps. Please follow isolation recommendations until ALL lesions have healed (scabs have fallen off). Also watch for a call from your local health department. They will be reaching out to help coordinate vaccination and treatment (if indicated). They’ll also ask questions to identify other people who may have been exposed to hMPXV (contact tracing). 

How is hMPXV treated? 

hMPXV is usually treated with supportive care at home with rest, hydration, and over-the-counter pain medications. However, the lesions can be quite painful. There are ways to help manage this discomfort so talk to your health care provider about what might work for you!

There is an antiviral medication, TPOXX (Tecovirimat), that is used in specific situations to treat hMPXV, such as children under 8, pregnancy, severe immunocompromise, or skin lesions near the eye. Most people do not need TPOXX. Talk to your healthcare provider about if this is indicated in your situation.

People who have had skin-to-skin contact with someone diagnosed with hMPXV may be able to receive a vaccine that may prevent the illness. The vaccine, that must be administered within 14 days of exposure, is in limited supply right now, but as supplies increase the state is hoping to offer to people at high risk before they are exposed to the virus.  

Can you tell me more about the vaccine?

The primary vaccine being used is called JYNNEOS (also known as Imvamune or Imvanex). JYNNEOS can be used for pre-exposure prophylaxis for people at higher risk for hMPXV or for post-exposure prophylaxis to minimize risk after a suspected or confirmed hMPXV exposure.

At this time, vaccines are being prioritized for “expanded post-exposure prophylaxis”, meaning people with known exposures or very high risk for exposures are being offered vaccines first. Here’s more on this approach: https://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/considerations-for-monkeypox-vaccination.html. The best way to find out about local access to vaccine in your community is to check with your county health department

Vaccine is available in limited supply for people who meet the eligibility criteria. Call 503-988-8939 to learn more. Language interpretation is available. Find additional information on these pages.
Monkeypox (hMPXV): What gay, queer and trans folks should know

hMPXV (Viruela del mono prevención y cuidado

Does Prism have the vaccine yet?

Prism Health has a very limited supply of hMPXV vaccines at this time and we are uncertain how many doses we will be receiving. For now, we are partnering with Multnomah County to vaccinate folks who are on their waitlist. All scheduling for these vaccine events is being done through Multnomah County. We hosted our first mass vaccine event last Friday and have another one scheduled for tomorrow. 

In the event that we have extra hMPXV doses after these mass vaccine events, these may be given to existing Prism Health patients who meet vaccination criteria and already have an existing appointment scheduled with us. We hope to offer more widespread vaccination soon, but this is dependent on vaccine supply. 

Are you giving the recently approved lower dose of Jynneos?

Yesterday (8/9/22), the FDA granted Emergency Use Authorization for a lower dose of JYNNEOS to be given intradermally (in the skin) that should offer the same protection as a full dose of vaccine which is given subcutaneously (under the skin). We are not offering this lower dose vaccine yet. We are evaluating the data and working with community partners and the Oregon Health Authority to make a determination on this strategy.
Here’s more on this strategy: https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/statements-releases/2022/08/09/fact-sheet-biden-administration-announces-key-actions-and-implementation-plan-to-increase-vaccine-supply/

Are there ways to have safer sex during this hMPXV outbreak? 

Here is information from the CDC on ways to have safer sex: https://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/pdf/MPX_Social_Gatherings_Safer_Sex-508.pdf  


Other resources for hMPXV information: 

Resources for support: 

Aging Well  

Aging Well is a program through Cascade AIDS Project that was created to help support the well-being of aging adults living with or affected by HIV. It is a member-driven, community-based program developed in hopes to create a sense of belonging among these individuals, as well as anyone who supports the mission of the program.  

To be a part of the program, all you have to do is get involved! No predetermined requirements are needed prior to involvement.  

For more information, or to contact the Aging Well Program: agingwellnw.org 

Jim Clay, Aging Well Program Team Lead 

Craig Kolins, Aging Well Program Coordinator  

Follow on social media @agingwellnw.org on Facebook and Instagram 

Sage Connect 

877-360-LGBT 

  • Has an LGBT Elder hotline available for more acute needs   
  • Available 24/7, 7 days a week   
  • In English and Spanish 

They also offer ongoing calls where volunteers can connect and be in community with Elders.  To sign up visit: https://www.sageusa.org/sageconnect/ 

Ain’t Dead Yet 

Zoom support group that meets once a month.  Met at the Q-center pre-COVID.  Contact: dani@pdxqcenter.org 

LGBT National Help Center 

888-234-8243 

Offers a telephone line that provides peer support, as well as help finding local resources. 

https://www.glbthotline.org/


References: 

https://fenwayhealth.org/wp-content/uploads/TFIR-337_Monkeypox-Fact-Sheet2.pdf

https://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/about.html

https://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/considerations-for-monkeypox-vaccination.html

https://www.hhs.gov/about/news/2022/06/28/hhs-announces-enhanced-strategy-vaccinate-protect-at-risk-individuals-from-current-monkeypox-outbreak.html

https://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/pdf/MPX_Social_Gatherings_Safer_Sex-508.pdf

https://www.oregon.gov/oha/PH/DISEASESCONDITIONS/DISEASESAZ/Pages/Orthopoxviruses.aspx

https://content.govdelivery.com/accounts/ORDHS/bulletins/31f89ae

https://www.co.washington.or.us/HHS/CommunicableDiseases/monkeypox.cfm